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Feb 1, 2007
Here is a sample of his work :

The Colchester Survey, 1931–38[SIZE=-1] TOP
Penrose, the man
The Colchester Survey, 1931–38
Down syndrome, other aneuploidy,...
Paternal age effects
Mental illness, 1939–45
The Galton Chair, 1945–65
The Kennedy-Galton Centre,...

The Royal Eastern Counties Institution was located in Colchester in southeastern England, and Penrose's work there culminated in the incomparable classic, The Colchester Survey: An Etiological Study of 1280 Cases of Mental Defect, which became the basis for his lifelong work (P[SIZE=-1]ENROSE[/SIZE] 1938 ). His basic concept was that mental retardation (MR) and illness are biologically, not socially, determined. Hence his book Mental Defect (P[SIZE=-1]ENROSE[/SIZE] 1933[SIZE=-1]A[/SIZE] ) and later three editions of The Biology of Mental Defect, the last in 1972 (P[SIZE=-1]ENROSE[/SIZE] 1972 ), are unsurpassed in their time for the wealth of original scientific, biological, and genetic information that they contained. The Colchester Survey included evaluations not only of the residents of the institution but of both parents and siblings whenever available. It took 7 years to complete and contributed an enormous amount to knowledge about multiple aspects of mental retardation, most of which applies to this day. The work was done predominantly by Penrose and one co-worker, Miss D. A. Newlyn; it was prepared for publication by his devoted, loyal, erstwhile secretary, typist of manuscripts, later co-worker, editor, and Cerberus of the office, Miss Helen Lang-Brown. Every family of the 1280 residents of the institution was visited personally, sometimes more than once; family medical histories were obtained, records reviewed, and IQs tested in every available relative. There were 6629 siblings in addition to parents and other family members. The residents were carefully examined clinically by Penrose himself in an attempt to determine the causes of intellectual impairment in each individual. The end of the survey contains an appendix (still useful) providing detailed information about each of the 1280 propositi and their families. The most important conclusions include the predominance of males among the mentally ******** population, caused in large part, as we now know, by several genes on the X chromosome; the heterogeneous underlying causes of mental defect; the absence of any strict dividing line between mental retardation and "normal" intellectual functioning; the demonstration of the role of environmental as well as genetic factors in the occurrence of certain types of mental retardation (including Down syndrome); and the more frequent recurrence of mental deficiency among children of mildly as opposed to more severely ******** parents. Reproduction among the latter is rare, and causes of severe MR are often de novo chromosomal abnormalities or other spontaneous events.
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Junior Blues Coordinator⭐
Dec 27, 2007
Cue a chorus of "One Lionel Sharples Penrose, there's only one Lionel Sharples Penrose"!


Feb 1, 2007
I didn't think you could hear that from where you sit - we normally miss out the Sharples though

I am getting more and more scared as the day approaches